Scientific Research: Methods, Areas & Proposal Writing
Definition of Scientific Research?
Scientific Research can be defined as,
“Scientific research is defined by the strategy of understanding how everything works through logical thinking.”
“Research into questions posed by scientific theories and hypotheses”.
Scientists are trained to use scientific method and reach the logical conclusion to any question. Scientific research is useful in defining the laws of nature and our place in the cosmos. Scientific research enables the scientists to carry out a thorough study and create an understanding of the world and nature as it truly is.
Essential Methods of Scientific Research
Four significant elements set up the foundation methods applied in scientific research:
- Operation: It refers to an action done on the subject or system under investigation
- Observation: Observation is the result of an operation on the system
- Model: Model could be a theory, a fact, a phenomena or a hypothesis at a certain moment
- Utility Function: Utility function means the usefulness of a model or theory in the explanation, prediction, controlling and costing of research.
Fields in Scientific Research
The fields of scientific research are divided into two broad categories:
- Social Sciences
- Natural Sciences
Social science deals with the study of human behavior and societies whereas natural sciences are concerned with study of natural phenomena. There is another class of scientific research called formal sciences. Formal science deals with investigation of those areas which cannot fall in either of the above mentioned categories such as mathematics.
Popular Areas in Scientific Research
Examples of Famous Scientific Research Topics
Typically, scientific papers deal with the following topics in the arena of scientific research:
- Stem cell research
- Cancer research
- Plant research
- Psychology research
- Human cloning
- Global Warming
Definition of a Scientific Research Proposal
A scientific research proposal can be defined as,
“A scientific research proposals offer information on a proposed research topic, including what the research is, by whom it is to be researched and budgets.”
Scientific research begins with the writing of a research proposal which in detail explains how the researcher intends to carry out the research. The proposal gives the reader or the evaluator a clear idea of the goal of the researcher and the importance of the research.
Format of a Scientific Research Proposal
Title page is the first part of a scientific research proposal. The title must be short, succinct and concise. It must express in few words what the research will be all about. The title page must contain the name of the researcher, name of the supervisor and the signatures of the approval authority.
Next is the summary page. It summarizes the research to be done. It also highlights the key aspects of the research and time line. The summary is usually not beyond one page.
Emphasize the importance of the proposed research and describe the research topic or theme. This is usually done in one or two paragraphs. It should be stated in the introduction whether a relationship exists between the proposed research and research undertaken before.
If no such research has been undertaken previously, this should be pointed out. Remember that the introduction should not discuss the research topic in depth.
A short literature review is an important part of a scientific research proposal. It sets the foundation of research and explains what makes the research in a particular area beneficial.
Here the researcher must mention the source of interest in the theme or topic. Indicate what is proposed with the research. For example, the topic was selected because of practical problems experienced in the particular field.
Technical discussion makes the crux of the scientific research proposal. It encompasses the conceptual framework of the research, its objectives, methodology, data collection and analysis, research design, schedule, human and financial resources needed etc.
A section of legal or contract requirements must be present in a scientific research proposal. It must emphasize the ethical considerations and any licensing or rights required during the course of the research.
Main Points to Consider While Writing a Scientific Research Proposal
A research proposal is a preliminary requirement before writing a research paper. Follow the basic tips and advice on how to write a research proposal for your scientific research paper in addition to the following important guidelines:
There are three main points to consider before writing a scientific research proposal:
- Explanation of the proposed research- What will be done?
- Methods and techniques to be used- How it will be done?
- Significance of the research- Why it should be done?